Cantillation Bibliography
  • Abudarham, David (edited by Shelomo Wertheimer). Abudarham Ha-Shalem. Jerusalem: Usha, 1959,1963. First published as Sefer Abudarham, Seville, 1340.

  • Adler, Israel. Hebrew Notated manuscript Sources. Munich: G. Henle, 1989.

  • Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981.

  • Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985.

  • Arnad, Moshe. “Alef bet beta‘amey ha-mikra uvemashma‘utam ha-parshanit.” Dukhan 12 (1989): 58-77.

  • Aronoff, Mark. “Orthography and Linguistic Theory: The Syntactic Basis of Masoretic Hebrew Punctuation.” Language 61 (1 1985): 28-72.

  • Avenary, Hanoch. “Masoretic Accents.” In Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 11, cols. 1098–1111. Jerusalem: Keter, 1972.

  • Avenary, Hanoch. The Ashkenazi Tradition of Biblical Chant between 1500 and 1900. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 1978.

  • Avinun, Sara. “Aspektim tahbiriyim logiyim vesemantiyim shel halukat ha-pesukim lefi ta‘amey ha-mikra.” M.A. Dissertation. Tel Aviv University, 1985.

  • Baer, Abraham. Baal T’fillah: Der practische Vorbeter. Gotenburg,1873. Reissued New York: Sacred Music Press, 1953.

  • Bandstra, Barry. “Word Order and Emphasis in Biblical Hebrew Narrative.” In Walter Bodine (ed.), Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1992, pp.  109-124.

  • Barr, James. “A New Look at Ketibh-Qere.” Old Testament Studies 21 (1981), 19-37.

  • Bayer, Batya. “Cantillation.” Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 5, cols.128-129. Jerusalem: Keter, 1972.

  • Beck, Astrid. “Introduction to the Leningrad Codex.” In Astrid Beck, The Leningrad Codex: A Facsilime Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997.

  • Beck, Astrid. The Leningrad Codex: A Facsimile Edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1997.

  • Ben-Asher, Aharon (Aharon Dotan, editor). Sefer dikdukey ha-te‘amim lerav aharon ben mosheh ben-asher. Jerusalem: Ha-Akademiyah Lelashon Ha-’ivrit, 1967.

  • Ben-Yehudah, Barukh. Ta‘amey ha-mikra levatey sefer. Ramat Gan (Israel): Massadah, 1968.

  • Ben-Asher, Aharon. Sefer dikdukey ha-te‘amim lerav aharon ben mosheh ben-asher. Edited by Aharon Dotan. Jerusalem: Ha-Akademiyah Lelashon Ha-ivrit, 1967.

  • Ben-Zvi, Izhak. “The Codex of Ben Asher.” Textus 1 (1960). Reprinted in S. Z. Leiman, The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Berlin, Adele. The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

  • Binder, Abraham W. Biblical Chant. New York: The Sacred Music Press, 1959.

  • Birnbaum, Edward. “Musical Traditions for the Reading of the Megillah (1891).” In Eric Werner, editor. Contributions to a Historical Study of Jewish Music. New York: Ktav, 1976. Orginally published in Allgemeinzeitung des Judentums, 1898.

  • Blau, Joshua. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1976.

  • Bloch, Ariel and Chana Bloch. The Song of Songs. New York: Random House, 1995.

  • Bloom, Norman. “The Torah Reading Cycle: Past and Present.” Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy. XVIII (1995-96), pp. 37-58.

  • Bodine, Walter R. (ed.), Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew .Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1992.

  • Bornemann, Robert. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew .Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 1998.

  • Braun, Yehezkel. “Iyunim bemelos hasefardi-yerushalmi mippi Nisan Kohen Mellamed.” Pe’amim 19 (1984), pp. 70-87.

  • Brettler, Marc Zvi. “How the Books of the Hebrew Bible Were Chosen.” in Harvey Minkoff, ed. Approches to the Bible, Volume 1 Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. pp. 108-113.

  • Brettler, Marc Zvi. “Old Testament Manuscripts: From Qumran to Leningrad.” in Harvey Minkoff, ed. Approches to the Bible, Volume 1 Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. pp. 198-204. First appeared in Biblical Review, August, 1989.

  • Brettler, Marc Zvi. Biblical Hebrew for Students of Modern Israeli Hebrew. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

  • Breuer, Mordecai. “Dividing the Decalogue into Verses and Commandments.” In The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, edited by Ben-Zion Segal and Gershon Levi. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1990 (first appeared in Biblical Review, August 1990.)

  • Breuer, Mordecai. “Dividing the Decalogue into Verses and Commandments.” In Ben-Zion Segal and Gershon Levi (eds.), The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1990, pp. 291-330. First appeared in Biblical Review, August, 1990.

  • Breuer, Mordecai. Keter aram tsova: Nikudo veta’amo. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1979. 

  • Breuer, Mordecai. Keter aram tsova. Jerusalem: Mossad HaRav Cook, 1976.

  • Breuer, Mordecai. Ta‘amey ha-mikra. Jerusalem: Ḥorev, 1982.

  • Breuer, Mordecai. Ta‘amey ha-mikra. Jerusalem: Óorev, 1982.

  • Burstein, Mordecai. “Hora’ot ta‘amey ha-mikra bekittot ha-yesod.” Dukhan 12 (Jerusalem: Renanot: The Institute for Jewish Music, 1989.), pp. 43-47.

  • Burton, Joan B. “Themes of Female Desire and Self-Assertion in the Song of Songs and Hellenistic Poetry.” In Perspectives on the Song of Songs, edited by Anselm Hagedorn, 180-205. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005. 

  • Chomsky, William. David Kimhi’s Hebrew Grammar (Mikhlol). New York: The Bloch Publishing Company, 1952.

  • Chomsky, William. Hebrew: The Eternal Language. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1957.

  • Cohen, Dalia and Daniel Weil. “The Scale System and Scale of Tiberian Masoretic Cantillation: Were They Pentatonic?” Tel Aviv: Orbis Musicae 10 (1990-91) 98-117.

  • Cohen, Miles Blicker. “Masoretic Accents as a Biblical Commentary.” The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University 4/1 (1972), pp. 2-11.

  • Cohen, Miles Blicker. “The Dual Accentuation of the Ten Commandments.” The International Organization for Masoretic Studies (1973 and 1973 proceedings). Missoula, Montana: Society of Biblical Literature (Scholars’ Press, University of Montata), 1974: pp. 7-19. 

  • Cohen, Miles Blicker. “The System of Accentuation in the Hebrew Bible.” B.A., University of Minnesota, 1969.

  • Collins, John. “Dead Sea Scrolls.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Corré, Alan D. “The Anglo-Sephardic Pronunciation of Hebrew.” The Journal of Jewish Studies 7 (1956), pp. 85-90.

  • Cross, Frank Moore. “The Text behind the Text of the Hebrew Bible.” in Harvey Minkoff, ed. Approches to the Bible, Volume 1 Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. pp. 198-204. First appeared in Biblical Review, Summer, 1985.

  • Davidson, A. B. An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. ed. John Mauchline. Edinburgh: T and T Clark, 1874.

  • Davies, Philip R. Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures. Louisville, KY, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.

  • Davis, Arthur. The Hebrew Accents. London: Myers and Co., 1900.

  • Decaen, Vincent and B. Elan Dresher. “Pausal Forms and Prosodic Structure in Tiberian Hebrew.” Aaron D. Hornkohl and Geoffrey Khan (eds.), Studies in Semitic Vocalisation and Reading Traditions. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2020, https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0207 

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  • de Hoop, Raymond. “Stress and syntax: Music and Meaning: The Purpose and Function of the Masoretic Accentuation System.” Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 34,2 (2008): 99-121.

  • Dotan, A. “Masorah” In Encyclopedia Judaica, cols. 1401-1482. vol 16. Jerusalem: Keter, 1972.

  • Dotan, A., “The Relative Chronology of Hebrew Vocalization and Accentuation,” Proceedings of the American Academy of Jewish Research 48 (1981) 87-99.

  • Dresher, B. Elan. Accentuation and Metrical Structure in Tiberian Hebrew. Vol. 3.180-208. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 1981.

  • Dresher, B. Elan. Metrical Structure and Secondary Stress in Tiberian Hebrew. Vol. 4.27-37. Brown University Working papers in Linguistics, 1981.

  • Elayi, Josette. “Name of Deuteronomy’s Author Found on Seal Ring.” Biblical Archaeology Review. September/October 1987, pp. 54-61.

  • Elbogen, Ismar. Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History. Translated by Raymond Scheindlin. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1993. Original German edition published in 1913.

  • Eldar, Ilan. Torat ha-keri’ah bemikra. Jerusalem: Ha-akademiyah la-lashon ha-‘ivrit, 1994.

  • Encyclopedia mikra’it. Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1971. S.v. ‘Ivrit.

  • Encyclopedia mikra’it. Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1971. S.v. Meteg.

  • Encyclopedia mikra’it. Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1971. S.v. Mikra: Kitvey yad shel ha-mikra.

  • Encyclopedia mikra’it. Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1971. S.v. Nikud.

  • Encyclopedia mikra’it. Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1971. S.v. Te‘amim.

  • Encyclopedia talmudit. Jerusalem: Talmudic Encyclopedia Institute, 1991. S.v. Te‘amim (vol. 20).

  • Encyclopedia talmudit. Jerusalem: Talmudic Encyclopedia Institute, 1991. Appendix: Nispah le-’orech te‘amim (vol. 20).

  • Engberg, Gudrun. “Ekphonetic Notation.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Stanley Sadie, ed.).London:MacMillan, 1980. vol.6, pp. 99-103.

  • Even-Shemuel, Yehudah, ed. Sefer Ha-kuzari Lerabbi Yehudah Ha-levy. Tel Aviv: Devir, 1972. 

  • Even-Shoshan, Avraham. Ha-millon ha-‘ivri ha-merukkaz. Jerusalem: Kiryat sefer, 1990.

  • Exum, J. Cheryl. “The Poetic Genius of the Song of Songs.” In Perspectives on the Song of Songs, edited by Anselm Hagedorn, 78-95. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005. 

  • Flender, Reinhard. Hebrew Psalmody: A structural Investigation. Jerusalem: Magnes Press (Yuval Monograph Series 9), 1992.

  • Fox, Everett. The Five Books of Moses. New York: Schocken Books, 1995.

  • Freedman, David Noel, editor-in-chief. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Freedman, David Noel, editor-in-chief. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Friedman, Matti. The Aleppo Codex: A True Story of Obsession, Faith, and the Pursuit of an Ancient Bible.  Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2012.

  • Gellis, Morris and Dennis Gribetz. The Glory of Torah Reading. revised 1983 ed., Jersey City: M.P. Press, 1982.

  • Gerson-Kiwi, Edith. “Cheironomy.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Stanley Sadie, ed.).London:MacMillan, 1980. vol.4, pp. 190-196.

  • Gerson-Kiwi, Edith. “The Music of the Kurdistani Jews.” Yuval 2 (1971). Reprinted in Eric Werner. Contributions to a Historical Study of Jewish Music. New York: Ktav, 1976.

  • Gesenius, W. Hebrew Grammar (edited and enlarged by E. Kautzch; translated and revised by A. E. Cowley). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910.

  • Gevaryahu, Haim M. I. “Sources on the History of Torah and Haftarah Reading.” Dor Le-Dor 1:2, pp. 15-20; 1:4, pp. 31-32; 2:2, pp. 39-42; 2:4, pp. 21-23.

  • Glinert, Lewis. “Putting Back the Meaning into Leyning.” L’eylah 32 (September, 1991), pp. 16-18.

  • Gold, Avie, ed. The Torah Reader’s Compendium (Tikkun La-kore’im). Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, 2001.

  • Goldschmidt, Daniel, ed. Seder Rav Amram Ga’on. Jerusalem: Mossad HaRav Kuk, 1971 (originally composed in 860).

  • Gordon, Aryeh Lev. Sefer mishpetey ha-lashon ha-‘ivrit (including Mishnat ha-gra). Vilna: Fein and Rosencranz, 1874.

  • Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe Henry, “The Rise of the Tiberian Bible Text.” Biblical and Other Studies. Cambridge (Mass.), 1963. Reprinted in S. Z. Leiman, The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader(New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe Henry, The Aleppo Codex Provided with masoretic Notes and Pointed by Aaron ben Asher(part I: plates; Jerusalem: Magnes, 1976).

  • Greenberg, Moshe. “The Stabilization of the Text of the Hebrew Bible, Reviewed in the Light of the Biblical materials from the Judean Desert.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 76 (1956). Reprinted in Leiman, S. Z., The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Haïk-Vantoura, Suzanne. The Music of the Bible Revealed. Translated by Dennis Weber. Berkeley, CA: Bibal Press, 1991. (Beware: this study is based on faulty assumptions.)

  • Hamburger, Binyamin Shelomo. Shorashey Minhag Ashkenaz, vol. 1. Beney Berak: Makhon Moreshet Ashkenaz, 1995.

  • Harran, Don. “Note on the Influence of Hebrew Accents on Renaissance Music Theory.” In Proceedings of the World Congress on Jewish Music, ed. Judith Cohen. Tel Aviv: The Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Literature (Naidat Press), 1978.

  • Heidenheim, Wolf. Sefer mishpetey ha-te‘amim. Rödelheim: 1808. Edited by Asher Klein inTikkun Kore’im vesoferim. Jerusalem: Yerid Ha-sefarim, 1995.

  • Hoffman, Lawrence, ed. My People’s Prayer Book: Traditional Prayers, Modern Commentaries. Volume 4, Seder K’riat Hatorah (The Torah Service). Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2000.

  • Hofman, Shlomo.  “The Cantillation of the Bible by the Karaites.” In  The Fifth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, edited by Avigdor Shinan, World Union of Jewish Studies, 278-9 (English Abstract), 57-62 (Hebrew), 1969.

  • Hoop, Raymond de . “’Trichotomy’ in Masoretic Accentuation in Comparison with the Delimitation of Units in the Versions, With Special Attention to the Introduction to Direct Speech.” In Unit Delimitation in Biblical Hebrew and Northwest Semitic Literature, Marjo Korpel, et al, eds, pp. 33-60. Assen, Holland: Koninklijke van Gorcum, 2003.

  • Horowitz, Edward. How the Hebrew language Grew. New York: Ktav, 1960.

  • Hroshovski, Benjamin. “Prosody, Hebrew” In Encyclopedia Judaica, cols. 1195-1240. vol 13. Jerusalem: Keter, 1972.

  • Hurwitz, Shimeon, ed. Mahzor Vitry. Nürnberg: J. Bukla, 1923.

  • Idelsohn, Abraham Z. Jewish Music in Its Historical Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1929; reprint, New York: Dover, 1992.

  • Idelsohn, Abraham Z. Thesaurus of Oriental Hebrew Melodies: Volume 2, Songs of the Babylonian Jews. Berlin: Benjamin Harz, 1923.

  • Jacobson, Joshua. “Ta‘amey hamikra: A Closer Look.” The Journal of Synagogue Music (fall 1992).

  • Jacobson, Joshua. “The Cantillation of the Decalogue.” The Journal of Synagogue Music 29 (May 1995). 

  • Jacobson, Joshua. Chanting the Hebrew Bible: The Complete Guide to the Art of Cantillation. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2002. 

  • Janis, Norman. “A Grammar of the Biblical Accents.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1987.

  • Josephus Flavius. The Complete Works of Josephus Translated by William Whiston. Grand rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications, 1960.

  • Joüon, Paul. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (translated and revised by T. Muraoka). Rome: Editrice Pontifico Istituto Biblico, 1993.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. “Hora’at ta‘amey ha-mikra bevet ha-sefer hayesodi.” Dukhan 12 (Jerusalem: Renanot: The Institute for Jewish Music, 1989.), pp. 48-58.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. “Toledoteyhem shel ta‘amey ha-mikra.” In Ha-morashah ha-musikalit shel kehilot yisra’el. Tel Aviv: Everyman’s University, 1986.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. Veshinantam levanekha: Limud ta‘amey ha-mikra — Torah. Jerusalem: HaMachon Lemusikah Yehudit, 1979.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. Veshinantam levanekha: Limud ta‘amey ha-mikra —Esther. Jerusalem: HaMachon Lemusikah Yehudit, 1985.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. Veshinantam levanekha: Limud ta‘amey ha-mikra —Haftarah. Jerusalem: HaMachon Lemusikah Yehudit, 1983.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. Veshinantam levanekha: Limud ta‘amey ha-mikra —Shir ha-shirim. Jerusalem: HaMachon Lemusikah Yehudit, 1987.

  • Kadari, Yehudah. Veyavinu ba-mikra: Ta‘amey Ha-mikra Kefarshaney Ha-mikra. Jerusalem: Ha-Machon LeTikhnun Limudim (Misrad Ha-khinuch Veha-Tarbut), 1977.

  • Kagan, Israel Meir. Mishnah Berurah. Jerusalem: Shoneh Halakhot. N.d.

  • Kahle, P. “The Masoretic Text of the Bible and the Pronunciation of Hebrew.” Journal of Jewish Studies 7 (1956). Reprinted in S. Z. Leiman, The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Kahn, Geoffrey. The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume I. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2020, https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0163 

  • Karp, Theodor. “Interpreting Silence: Liturgy, Singing and Psalmody in the Early Synagogue.” Rivista internazionale di musica sacra 20, pp. 47-109.

  • Kelley, Page H., Daniel S. Mynatt, and Timothey G. Crawford. The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and Annotated Glossary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1998.

  • Khan, Geoffrey. “The Pronunciation of the verbs vhv and vhj in the Tiberian Tradition of Biblical Hebrew,” in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds.) Semitic and Cushitic Studies. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1994. 133-144.

  • Khan, Geoffrey. “The Tiberian Pronunciation of Biblical Hebrew.” Zeitschrift für Althebraistik. IX/1 (1996), pp. 1-23.

  • Kittel, Bonnie, Vicki Hoffer, and Rebecca Wright. Biblical Hebrew. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

  • Klein, Asher, ed.Tikkun Kore’im vesoferim. Jerusalem: Yerid Ha-sefarim, 1995. Includes excerpts from Norzi’s Minhat Shay, and Heidenheim’s Mishpetey ha-te’amim.

  • Kogot, Simcha. Ha-mikra beyn te‘amim lefarshanut. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1994.

  • Kugel, James. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and its History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981). Reprint ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1998.

  • Kutscher, Eduard Y. A History of the Hebrew Language. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1982.

  • Lachmann, Robert. Jewish Cantillation and Song in the Isle of Djerba. Jerusalem: Azriel Press, 1940. Original full text reprinted as Gesänge der Juden auf der Insel Djerba, edited by Edith Gerson-Kiwi (Yuval Monograph Series 7; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1978).

  • Lambdin, Thomas. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971.

  • Langer, Ruth. “From Study of Scripture to a Reenactment of Sinai: The Emergence of the Synagogue Torah Service.” Worship 72:1 (January, 1998), 43-67.

  • Laufer, Asher.  “Chironomy and Head Movement in Reciting the Hebrew Scriptures.” In  The Fifth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, edited by Avigdor Shinan, World Union of Jewish Studies, 290 (English Abstract), 93-107 (Hebrew), 1969.

  • Lazarus, Harris. “The Rationale of the Tiberian Graphic Accentuation.” In Essays in Honour of the Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, ed. E. Levine and C. Roth I. Epstein. London: Edward Goldston, 1942.

  • Lebedev, Victor V. “The Oldest Complete Codex of the Hebrew Bible.” In Astrid Beck, The Leningrad Codex: A Facsilime Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997.

  • Lehman, Manfred R. “Scribal Peculiarities in the Sefer Torah.” Dor LeDor 14, pp. 135-140.

  • Leib, Aryeh Yehudah ben Efrayim Ha-kohen. Sha’ar Efrayim. Sulzbach: 1688.

  • Leibowitz, Nehama. Studies in Shemot. Jerusalem: The World Zionist Organization, 1981. Translated by Aryeh Newman.

  • Leiman, Sid Z. The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Leiman, Sid Z. The Canonization of Hebrew Scripture: The Talmudic and Midrashic Evidence. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1976.

  • Levenson, Jonathan. The Death and Resurrection of the Beloved Son. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

  • Levin, Saul. “The Traditional Chironomy of the Hebrew Scriptures.” Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968): 59-70.

  • Levin, Saul. Hebrew Grammar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1966.

  • Levy, Joshua. “Moreh keriyat ha-torah,” Tikkun kore’im. Beney Berak, 1995.

  • Lieberman, Stephen. “Towards a Graphemics of the Tiberian Bible.” In Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew, edited by Walter Bodine. Winona Lake: Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1992.

  • Loewinger, D. S., Pentateuch, Prophets and Hagiographa: Codex Leningrad B19 (facsimile with introduction: Jerusalem: Makor, 1971).

  • Loprieno, Antonio. “Searching For a Common Background: Egyptian Love Poetry and the Biblical Song of Songs.” In Perspectives on the Song of Songs, edited by Anselm Hagedorn, 105-135. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005. 

  • Maimonides, Moses. Mishneh Torah (Code of Jewish Law). Jerusalem: Vegshel, N.d. (originally written in 1185).

  • Malone, Joseph. Tiberian Hebrew Phonology. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1993.

  • Mashiah, Rachel. “Parallel Realizations of Dichotomy Patterns on Biblical Accentuation.” Leshoneynu 60:1-2 (March, 1997), 11-19.

  • Mayer, Brian. “Cantillation as Liturgical Chant.” (MS)

  • Meir ben Barukh (a.k.a. Maharam). Teshuvot pesakim uminhagim (Responsa, Rulings and Customs). Edited by I.Z. Cahana. Jerusalem: Mosad Harav Kook, 1957.

  • Meizel, S. and M. Shmuelvitch, “Te‘amim,” inTalmudic Encyclopedia (Volume 20). Jerusalem: Talmudic Encyclopedia Institute, 1992.

  • Miller, Cynthia. The Representation of Speech in Biblical Hebrew Narrative. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996.

  • Minkoff, Harvey. “Coarse Language in the Bible: It’s Culture Shocking!.” in Harvey Minkoff, ed. Approches to the Bible, Volume 1 Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. pp. 275-285. First appeared in Biblical Review, April, 1989.

  • Minkoff, Harvey. “The Aleppo Codex: Ancient Bible from the Ashes.” in Harvey Minkoff, ed. Approches to the Bible, Volume 1 Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. pp. 275-285. First appeared in Biblical Review, August, 1991.

  • Mirski, Aaron. Ha-pisuk shel ha-signon ha-’ivri. Jerusalem: Mosad Harav Kook, 1978.

  • Möllin, Jacob (edited by Shelomo Spitzer). Sefer Maharil. Jerusalem: Mif‘al Torat Hakhmey Ashkenaz/Makon Yerushalayim, 1989. (first published Sabionetta, 1556, 

  • Moore, G. F. “The Vulgate Chapters and Numbered Verses in the Hebrew Bible.” Journal of Biblical Literature 12 (1893). Reprinted in S. Z. Leiman, The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Morrow, M.S. “Kethiv and Qere.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Museleh, Ezekiel N. “Observations on Ta-amey Ha-Mikra.” Dor Le-Dor 12:2, pp. 84-94.

  • Nakarai, Toyozo. Biblical Hebrew. Philadelphia: Bookman Associates, 1951.

  • Ne’eman, Yehoshua L. “Mikra’ot beshinnuy nigun ha-te‘amim.” Dukhan 12 (Jerusalem: Renanot: The Institute for Jewish Music, 1989.), pp. 38-42.

  • Ne’eman, Yehoshua L. Qera BeTa‘am: volume 1—Torah. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Sacred Music, 1966.

  • Ne’eman, Yehoshua L. Qera BeTa‘am: volume 2—Haftarah. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Sacred Music, 1973.

  • Ne’eman, Yehoshua L. Tseliley ha-mikra: volume 1 — The Accents and Their Structure, Torah, Haftarah. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Sacred Music, 1955.

  • Ne’eman, Yehoshua L. Tseliley ha-mikra: volume 2 — Shir HaShirim, Ruth, Kohelet, Eichah, Esther, High Holidays. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Sacred Music, 1971.

  • Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology. Urbana, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

  • Norzi, Shelomo Yedidyah. Minhat Shay. In Shemu’el Me’ir Ri’ahi. Tikkun kore’im hadash: Simanim. Jerusalem: ‘Olam ha-sefer ha-torani, 1996.

  • O’Conner, Michael. Hebrew Verse Structure. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1980.

  • Orlinsky, Harry M. “The Masoretic Text: A Critical Evaluation.” Prolegomenon to the reissue of C. D. Ginsburg’s Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible. NY: Ktav, 1966. Reprinted in S. Z. Leiman, The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Penkower, Jordan. Nusah ha-tora bekheter aram-tsova (New Evidence for the Pentateuch Text in the Aleppo Codex). Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 1992.

  • Penkower, Jordan.”Minhag Vemassorah: ‘Zekher Amalek’ Behamesh o beshesh nekudot.” Iyyuney Mikra Ufarshanut (volume 4). Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 1997, pp. 71-128.

  • Perlman, Michael. Dappim lelimud ta‘amey ha-mikra. Jerusalem: Ha-makhon Ha-Yisra’eli Lemusikah Datit, 1962.

  • Perlman, Michael. Dappim lelimud ta‘amey ha-mikra. Jerusalem: HaMachon HaYisra’eli Lemusikah Datit, 1962.

  • Perlman, Michael. Ha-Masorah le-humash “mikra’ot gedolot” (three volumes). Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1984.

  • Perlman, Michael. Kelaley ha-te’amim shel sifrey emet. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1985.

  • Perlman, Michael. Hug Le-ta‘amey Ha-mikra. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1971.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer bemidbar. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1981.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer bereshit. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1979.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer devarim. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1981.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer ha-haftarot. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1987.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer shemot. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1981.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer tehillim. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1982.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer vayyikra. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1980.

  • Perlman, Michael. Sefer yehoshua‘. Tel Aviv: Zimrat, 1984.

  • Philo. The Complete Works of Philo. Translated by C. D. Yonge. Peabody, Mass.:Hendrickson, 1993.

  • Portnoy, Marshall and Josée Wolff. The Art of Torah Cantillation. New York: the UAHC Press, 2000.

  • Price, James D. Concordance of the Hebrew Accents in the Hebrew Bible. Lewiston NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996.

  • Price, James D. The Syntax of Masoretic Accents in the Hebrew Bible. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

  • Prince, Alan S. “The Phonology and Morphology of Tiberian Hebrew.” Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, 1975.

  • Revell, E. J., “Biblical Punctuation and Chant in the Second Temple Period, “ Journal for the Study of Judaism 7:2 (1976) 181-198.

  • Revell, E. J., “Masorah, “ The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Revell, E. J., “Masoretes, “ The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Revell, E. J., “Masoretic Text, “ The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Revell, E. J., “Scribal Emendations, “ The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Revell, E. J., “The Oldest Evidence for the Hebrew Accent System, “ Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971-72) 214-22.

  • Revell, E.J. “Pausal Forms and the Structure of Biblical Poetry.” Vetus Testamentum 31,2 (1981): 186-199.

  • Revell, E.J. “The Accents: Hierarchy and Meaning.” In Method in Unit Delimitation, edited by Marjo Korpet, et al, 61-91. Boston: Brill, 2007.

  • Revell, E.J. “Paulsal Forms in Biblical Hebrew: Their Function, Origin, and Significance.” Journal of Semitic Studies, 25(1): Autumn 1980. pp. 165-179.

  • Revell, E.J. “The Leningrad Codex as a Representative of the Masoretic Text.” In Astrid Beck, The Leningrad Codex: A Facsilime Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997.

  • Ri’ahi, Shemu’el Me’ir. Tikkun kore’im hadash: Simanim. Jerusalem: Olam ha-sefer ha-torani, 1996. (Includes a selection of Norzi’s Minhat Shay.)

  • Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Haftarah Chanting. New York: Ktav Publishing, 1973.

  • Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Torah Chanting. New York: Ktav Publishing, 1973.

  • Rosowsky, Solomon. The Cantillation of the Bible. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1957.

  • Sáenz-Badillos, Angel. A History of the Hebrew Language (translated by John Elwolde). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

  • Saldarini, Anthony. “Scribes.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Sanders, Paul. “Pausal Forms and the Delimitation of Cola in Biblical Hebrew Poetry.” In Unit Delimitation in Biblical Hebrew and Northwest Semitic Literature, Marjo Korpel, et al, eds, pp. 264-278. Holland: Koninklijke Van Gorcum, 2003.

  • Sanders, James. “Canon.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

  • Sawyer, John. A Modern Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. Stocksfield (England): Oriel Press, 1976.

  • Schachter, Hershel. “Lesser Known Laws of Torah Reading.” Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy VII (1984-85), pp. 1-11.

  • Scharfstein, Asher, ed. Encyclopedia Tikkun La-kore’im. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1951. “With Laws and Customs Governing the Reading of the Torah” by Karl Appelbaum.

  • Schonfeld, Moshe. “The Vilna Gaon’s Interpretations of the Te‘amim.” The Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, Vol V (1982-83) 40-42.

  • Schramm, Gene M. The Graphemes of Tiberian Hebrew. University of California Near Eastern Studies, 2, Berkeley and Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1964.

  • Segal, M. H. “The Promulgation of the Authoritative Text of the Hebrew Bible.” Journal of Biblical Literature 72 (1953). Reprinted in Leiman, S. Z., The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible: An Introductory Reader (New York: Ktav, 1974).

  • Seroussi, Edwin. “Reconstructing Sephardi Music in the Twentieth Century.” The World of Music, 1995 (vol. 37:1). 

  • Sharvit, Uri. “The Musical Realization of Biblical Cantillation Symbols (Te’amim) in the Jewish Yemenite Tradition.” Yuval 4 (1982), pp. 179-210).

  • Sherman-Gold, Rivka. The Ohs and Ahs of Torah Reading: A Guide to the Kamatz Katan in the Torah, the Haftarot and the Megillot. Mountain View, California: Yodan Publishing, 1999.

  • Sherman-Gold, Rivka. The Ohs and Ahs of Torah Reading: A Guide to the Kamatz Katan in the Torah, the Haftarot and the Megillot. Mountain View, Califorina: Yodan Publishing, 1999.

  • Shershevsky, Esra “The Accents in Rashi’s Commentary.” Jewish Quarterly Review 62 (1971), pp. 277-287.

  • Shiloah, Amnon. “Some Comments on the Cantillation of the Ten Commandments.” in Ben-Zion Segal and Gershon Levi (eds.), The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1990, pp. 331-342.

  • Shiloah, Amnon. Ha-moreshet Ha-musikalit Shel Kehilot Yisra’el. Tel Aviv: Everyman’s University, 1986. Volume 4: Musikah Vedat.

  • Shiloah, Amnon. Jewish Musical Traditions. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992.

  • Siegel, Jonathan P. “The Evolution of Two Hebrew Scripts.” Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 5:3 (May/June, 1979), pp. 28-33

  • Simon, Ely. The Complete Torah Reading Handbook. New York: The Judaica Press, 1996.

  • Spector, Johanna. “Chant and Cantillation.” Musica Judaica 9 (1986-87) 1-7.

  • Sperber, Alexander. A Historical Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966.

  • Spiro, Pinchas. Haftarah Chanting. New York: Board of Jewish Education, 1964.

  • Steiner Yitzhak and Yitzhak Goldstein. Diney sefer Torah she-nimtsa bo ta‘ut (Laws Regarding a Torah Scroll in Which an Error Is Found). Jerusalem: Ot, 1984.

  • Steiner, Richard. “Ancient Hebrew.” In William Bright, editor-in-chief. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. NY: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 110-118.

  • Strassfeld, Michael. The Jewish Holidays. New York : Harper & Row, 1985. 

  • Taruskin, Richard. “MUSIC; Music’s Dangers And The Case For Control.” New York Times, December 9, 2001.

  • Tawil Hayim and Bernard Schneider. Crown of Aleppo: The Mystery of the Oldest Hebrew Bible Codex. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2010.

  • Tortschiner, N. H. Ha-mivta‘ ha-’alliz: hartza’ot beradiyo yerushalayim letikun ha-mivta ha-’ivriy (second corrected edition). Warsaw: Ha-va’ad ha-merkazi shel “tarbut” be-polin, 1939.

  • Tov, Emanuel. “The Indication of Small Sense Units (Verses) in Biblical Manuscripts.” In Hamlet on a Hill, Semitic and Greek Studies Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday, edited by M.F.J. Baasten and W.Th. van Peursen. Leuven: Peeters, 2003. 

  • Tov, Emanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992

  • Tsumura, David T. “Vertical Grammar: The Grammar of Parallelism in Biblical Hebrew.” In Hamlet on a Hill, Semitic and Greek Studies Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday, edited by M.F.J. Baasten and W.Th. van Peursen. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

  • Vaga, Shim’on. Kero Mikra: Targilim lepitu’ah ha-keriy’ah ha-meduyeket ba-tanakh. Jerusalem: Misrad Hatarbut Vehahinuch, 1982.

  • Waltke, Bruce and M. O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990.

  • Watson, Wilfred G.E. “Unit Delimitation in the Old Testament: An Appraisal.” In Unit Delimitation in Biblical Hebrew and Northwest Semitic Literature, Marjo Korpel, et al, eds, pp. 162-184. Holland: Koninklijke Van Gorcum, 2003.

  • Weil, Daniel Meir. The Masoretic Chant of the Bible. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1995.

  • Weinberg, Avraham. Te‘amim Venikud. Tel Aviv: Jezre’el, 1968.

  • Weinberg, Werner. “The Qamas Qatan Structures.” Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968), pp. 151-165.

  • Weinfeld. Ta‘amey ha-mikra. Jerusalem: Eshkol, 1972.

  • Weisberg, David. “The Rare Accents of the Twenty-One Books.” Jewish Quarterly Review 56/4 (April, 1966), pp. 315-336; 57/1 (July, 1966), pp. 57-70; and 57/3 (January, 1967), pp. 227-238.

  • Werner, Eric. “Trop and Tropus: Etymology and History.” Hebrew Union College Annual, vol 46 (1975), p. 289-296.

  • Werner, Eric. A Voice Still Heard: The Sacred Songs of the Ashkenazic Jews. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.

  • Werner, Eric. The Sacred Bridge: the Interdependence of Liturgy and Music in Synagogue and Church during the First Millenium. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

  • Wickes, William. Two Treatises on the Accentuation of the Old Testament. 1881-1887. Reprint ed: New York: Ktav Publishers, 1970.

  • Williams, Ronald. Hebrew Syntax: An Outline, second edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.

  • Wolfson, Elliot. “Biblical Accentuation in a Mystical Key: Kabbalistic Interpretations of the Te’amim (Part 1).” Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy 11 (1988-89), 1-16.

  • Wolfson, Elliot. “Biblical Accentuation in a Mystical Key: Kabbalistic Interpretations of the Te’amim (Part 2).” Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy 12 (1989-90), 1-13.

  • Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament, Second edition. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. (Original edition, Der Text des Alten Testaments. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1988.)

  • Yardeni, Ada. “Remarks on the Priestly Blessing on Two Ancient Amulets from Jerusalem.” Vetus Testamentum41:2 (1991), pp. 176-185.

  • Yeivin, Israel. “Hat‘amat ha-torah she-ba‘al peh ba-te‘amim.” Leshoneynu 1960 (vol. 24), pp. 69-47, 167-178, 207-231.

  • Yeivin, Israel. Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah. Translated by E. J. Revell. Scholars Press, 1980.

  • Yeivin, Israel. Keter aram-tsova: Nikudav veta‘amav (The Aleppo Codex: Its Vowels and Punctuation). Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1968.

  • Zeitlin, Shneur Zalman and Haim Bar-Dayan. Miqraey Qodesh: The Hebrew calendar and the Cantillations for the Festivals of the Year. Jerusalem: Joseph Marton, 1984.

  • Zeitlin, Shneur Zalman and Haim Bar-Dayan. Miqraey Qodesh: The Megillah of Esther and Its Cantillation. Jerusalem: Kiryat Sefer, 1974.

  • Zewi, Tamar. “The Nominal Sentence in Biblical Hebrew.” In Semitic and Cushitic Studies, edited by Gideon Goldenberg and Shlomo Raz. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1994, pp. 145-167.

  • Zuckerman, Ghil’ad. “Abba, Why Was Professor Higgins Trying to Teach Eliza to Speak Like Our Cleaning Lady?: Mizrahim, Ashkenazim, Presciptivism and the Real Sounds of the Israeli Language.” Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 19 (2005): 210-31.

 
The Biblical Text: Recommended Primary Sources
  • Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1967–1977. (A new edition of this Bible, Biblia Hebraica Quinta, is currently being prepared for publication.)

  • Breuer, Mordecai, ed. Keter Yerushalayim. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi, 2000.

  • Dotan, Aharon, ed. Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2001.

  • Hebrew-English Tanakh. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999.

  • Torah nevi’im ketuvim, Jerusalem: Koren, 1986.

  • Torah, nevi’im, ketuvim, mahadurat ha-universitah ha-ivrit biyrushalayim. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1993–.